By Aihwa Ong
Summarized by Tun
Globalization is becoming inevitable for all the nations of 21st century and it makes various changes in the politics, economics, culture etc in the world. All the countries have to deal with global market in this global era. Global market has already been developed and it contributes to both strengthening and weakening of different activities of the states in dealing with global regulatory entities. So, it needs to understand how states manage transnational networks that variously integrate them into the global market and political community.
There happen fundamental changes in the states when stimulated by economic globalization. The author, who is a professor of anthropology , demonstrates how so-called Asian tiger countries like Malaysia and Indonesia, which develop a system of graduated sovereignty, created new economic possibilities, social spaces and political constellations, which in turn condition their further actions in the course of interactions with global markets and regulatory agencies such as the UN. The shifting relations between market, state, and society have resulted in the state’s flexible experimentations with sovereignty. She says she explores these fundamental changes using what she mentions ‘the model of graduated sovereignty’.